A description of the patton papers invaluable for two reasons

An analysis of the british democratic state as of

A description of the patton papers invaluable for two reasons

Here researchers seek to satisfy four criteria. In addressing credibility, investigators attempt to demonstrate that a true picture of the phenomenon under scrutiny is being presented.

Lewis And Clark Expedition Facts

To allow transferability, they provide sufficient detail of the context of the fieldwork for a reader to be able to decide whether the prevailing environment is similar to another situation with which he or she is familiar and whether the findings can justifiably be applied to the other setting.

The meeting of the dependability criterion is difficult in qualitative work, although researchers should at least strive to enable a future investigator to repeat the study. Finally, to achieve confirmability, researchers must take steps to demonstrate that findings emerge from the data and not their own predispositions.

The paper concludes by suggesting that it is the responsibility of research methods teachers to ensure that this or a comparable model for ensuring trustworthiness is followed by students undertaking a qualitative inquiry.

George S. Patton Papers: Diaries, ; Original; | Library of Congress

Qualitative methods, research 1. Introduction The trustworthiness of qualitative research generally is often questioned by posi- tivists, perhaps because their concepts of validity and reliability cannot be addressed in the same way in naturalistic work.

Nevertheless, several writers on research methods, notably Silverman [1], have demonstrated how qualitative researchers can incorporate measures that deal with these issues, and investigators such as Pitts [2] have attempted to respond directly to the issues of validity and reliability in their own qualitative studies.

Many naturalistic investigators have, however, preferred to use different terminology to distance themselves from the positivist paradigm. All rights reserved 64 A. This paper considers the criteria in detail and suggests provisions that the qualitative researcher may employ to meet them.

The strategies advocated are based on the experience gained by Shenton when undertaking a qualitative PhD study devoted to the information-seeking behaviour of school-aged children [5].

Credibility One of the key criteria addressed by positivist researchers is that of internal valid- ity, in which they seek to ensure that their study measures or tests what is actually intended.

The Patton Papers: by George S. Patton Jr.

The following provisions may be made by researchers to promote confidence that they have accurately recorded the phenomena under scrutiny: Thus, the specific procedures employed, such as the line of questioning pursued in the data gathering sessions and the methods of data analysis, should be derived, where possible, from those that have been suc- cessfully utilised in previous comparable projects.

In terms of investigation of information-seeking behaviour, the work of Dervin has proved particularly influential in this regard. Similar strategies have been used subsequently by Chen and Hernon [10], Poston-Anderson and Edwards [11] and Shenton [12] amongst others; A.

This may be achieved via consultation of appropriate documents and preliminary visits to the organisations themselves. Lincoln and Guba [13] and Erlandson et al.

The danger emerges, however, that if too many demands are made on staff, gatekeepers responsible for allowing the researcher access to the organisation may be deterred from cooperating. The investigator may also react with some suspicion to the notion of prolonged engagement in view of the undesirable side effects that have been noted by Lincoln and Guba [15] and Silverman [16].

The former draw particular attention to the way in which investigators may become so immersed in the culture under scrutiny that their professional judgements are influenced; c random sampling of individuals to serve as informants.

Although much quali- tative research involves the use of purposive sampling, a random approach may negate charges of researcher bias in the selection of participants.

Furthermore, it may be that a random method is particularly appropriate to the nature of the investigation. A signifi- cant disadvantage of random method, however, stems from the fact that, since the researcher has no control over the choice of informants, it is possible that quiet, uncooperative or inarticulate individuals may be selected; d triangulation.

Triangulation may involve the use of different methods, es- pecially observation, focus groups and individual interviews, which form the major data collection strategies for much qualitative research.

A description of the patton papers invaluable for two reasons

Whilst focus groups and individual interviews suffer from some common methodological shortcomings since both are interviews of a kind, their distinct characteristics also result in individual strengths.

According to Guba [21] and Brewer and Hunter [22], the use of different methods in concert compensates for their individual limitations and exploits their respective benefits. Where possible, 66 A. Opportunities should also be seized to examine any documents referred to by informants during the actual interviews or focus groups where these can shed more light on the behaviour of the people in question.

Another form of triangulation may involve the use of a wide range of in- formants. This is one way of triangulating via data sources. Here individual viewpoints and experiences can be verified against others and, ultimately, a rich picture of the attitudes, needs or behaviour of those under scrutiny may be constructed based on the contributions of a range of people.Title George S.

Patton Papers: Diaries, ; Original; Contributor Names Patton, George S. (George Smith), Celebrate World Space Week by downloading this free colorful PDF poster which comparing race and recruitment in world war i by walker to he was determined to go by cook is available in two resolutions in eight languages.

Lewis And Clark Articles

Title George S. Patton Papers: Diaries, ; Annotated transcripts; Contributor Names Patton, George S. (George Smith), The Patton Papers - - (PDF) - Ebook download as PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or read book online.5/5(1). On the contrary, however, Arizona -especially Yuma-, is a beautiful place that has invaluable history with the Native American tribes in the area and military history going back to WWII with General Patton and his troops with the Yuma Proving Grounds and Yuma Air Station.

HiCustomer you have two papers due tomorrow an Assignment and a Journal. The Assignment is a two pages paper which you do the following: Explain how you might use reframing, eye contact, and nonverbal communication in two of the three types of counseling sessions (individual, coupes, family).

Army Essays: Examples, Topics, Titles, & Outlines