An analysis of the concept of logic as the feature of argumentation

Etymology[ edit ] The Latin root arguere to make bright, enlighten, make known, prove, etc. Informal logic and Formal logic Informal arguments as studied in informal logic, are presented in ordinary language and are intended for everyday discourse. Conversely, formal arguments are studied in formal logic historically called symbolic logic, more commonly referred to as mathematical logic today and are expressed in a formal language.

An analysis of the concept of logic as the feature of argumentation

Someone who merely makes false statements, however absurd, is innocent of fallacy unless the statements constitute or express an argument. In logical tradition, a fallacy may be made up even out of true statements, if they occur in proper form; that is, if they constitute or express an argument that seems valid but is not.

The concept of an argument is quite basic to Logic but seldom examined. However, there are problems which require us to take a closer look at it.

We have felt the advance rumblings of several of these already.

An analysis of the concept of logic as the feature of argumentation

I shall be concerned principally with three of them. In many cases of supposed fallacy it is possible for the alleged perpetrator to protest, with an innocent face, that he cannot be convicted because he has not been arguing at all.

Consider the so-called argumentum ad hominem, in the sense of the modern books. Person A makes statement S: Draw what conclusion you like. If the cap fits. And what are the criteria of that?

To take another case, which is in earnest in that it is of a kind that can occur even in the relatively rarified atmosphere of philosophical discussion, consider the kind of move that we might be tempted to classify as argument in a circle, or question-begging.

This is where every course in critical thinking begins, with a discussion of the most basic and foundational concepts necessary for argument analysis. This is where every course in critical thinking begins, with a discussion of the most basic and foundational concepts necessary for argument analysis. The Basic Concepts of Logical Theory Some Basic Concepts of Logic Argument. Logical theory begins with the concept of an argument. An “argument,” as the word is used in logic and in intellectual contexts generally, soundness is the ultimate goal of deductive argumentation, not mere validity. You know you’ve made it if your.

But to show that such a world would be incoherent he must invoke the Principle of Non-Contradiction, which it is the object of the exercise to prove. I am not saying that the incoherence of a world containing contradictions is an argument for the Principle of Non-Contradiction.

So long as he can insist that he is merely elucidating his position, and not arguing, he can evade censure. If he is to be effectively answered, it must be on the grounds that what he says does constitute an argument, and based on an appreciation of what this involves.

Is there such a thing as inductive validity, or is it a contradiction in terms? In the case of arguments from authority -- since we cannot abjure these arguments altogether -- how are we to balance authorities against one another, and arguments based on their opinions against arguments, such as inductive ones, from other sources?

Is it always unreasonable to use an argument from authority against a deductive one for example, in Mathematics? A prior question, both in the case of inductive arguments and in the case of arguments from authority, is: Are they really arguments?

Mill that every valid argument is question-begging. It must be granted that in every syllogism, considered as an argument to prove the conclusion, there is a petitio principii. When we say, All men are mortal, Socrates is a man, therefore Socrates is mortal; it is unanswerably urged by the adversaries of the syllogistic theory, that the proposition, Socrates is mortal, is presupposed in the more general assumption, All men are mortal.

The error committed is, I conceive, that of overlooking the distinction between two parts of the process of philosophising, the inferring part, and the registering part, and ascribing to the latter the functions of the former.

But this is to take a view of argument as an extended process that includes the verification of the premisses on which inference proceeds. But what of other contexts?

De Morgan complains Formal Logic, pp.Argumentation theory, or argumentation, is the interdisciplinary study of how conclusions can be reached through logical reasoning; that is, claims based, soundly or not, on premises.

It includes the arts and sciences of civil debate, dialogue, conversation, and persuasion.

Jan 29,  · initiativeblog.com This video introduces the concept of an ARGUMENT as the term is used in logic and argumentation. The Basic Concepts of Logical Theory Some Basic Concepts of Logic Argument.

Logical theory begins with the concept of an argument.

An analysis of the concept of logic as the feature of argumentation

An “argument,” as the word is used in logic and in intellectual contexts generally, soundness is the ultimate goal of deductive argumentation, not mere validity. You know you’ve made it if your. 4)Logic-the study of the formal structures of sound, thinking, and good argumentation 5)Philosophy of religion-the philosophical study of religion, the nature of the divine, and the various reasons for believing (or not believing) in Gods existence.

This is where every course in critical thinking begins, with a discussion of the most basic and foundational concepts necessary for argument analysis. primary purpose of reflective argumentation, by contrast, is to develop arguments as a and his "An Epistemological Approach to Argumentation," Informal Logic, 23 (): 2 frames and structures a problem.

Conversely, when we are able to construct an argu- our concept of arguing should include using the construction and.

Argument - Wikipedia