During the Yayoi period ca. The basic genetic stock of the population and the fundamental patterns of the language were established during that period.
The expressions capture and culture fisheries are self-explanatory. In the former, one reaps the aquatic harvest without having to sow, whereas, in the latter, one has to sow the seed, nurse it, tend it, rear it and harvest it when it grows to marketable size.
Examples of capture fisheries are the natural fisheries of the seas, estuaries, rivers, lagoons, large lakes etc. Pen culture, cage culture, culture in running waters, in recirculating systems and in reconditioned water are special types of aquaculture. All shades of intermediate stages between true capture and culture fisheries exist such as in man-made-lakes, which are stocked extraneously but where no manuring, fertilizing and feeding are generally done.
The principles of management of capture and culture fisheries are very different from each other. In the case of capture fisheries one has to attempt to harvest maximum sustainable yield by regulating fishing effort and mesh after taking into account parameters of population dynamics such as rates of recruitment, natural and fishing mortalities, fish growth and size at which recruitment occurs.
Management of capture fisheries requires knowledge of the dynamics of the fish populations under exploitation. The extended exclusive economic zone of miles brings into focus the national and international complexities of regulating the capture fisheries of the seas and the oceans and apportionment of the marine harvest because fish populations do not abide by man-made boundaries.
In the case of culture fisheries, no detailed knowledge of the population dynamics of the cultivated finfish or shell fish is involved. Here, one has to breed, if one technically can, the chosen fish under controlled conditions, if it does not breed naturally, and develop fish husbandry practices so as to be able to formulate economically viable technologies.
For effective aquaculture, one has to gain familiarity and control water quality to enhance its biological productivity; one has to understand fish nutrition so as to be able to formulate nutritionally balanced fish diet; one has to delve deep into fish genetics so as to be able to evolve new varieties and strains which bestow commercial advantages to the product in terms of superior growth rate, nutritive value, bonelesness, taste, odour etc.
With this background information, a definition of aquaculture can be attempted. The crop may be that of an animal or a plant. Naturally, the organism cultured has to be ordained by nature as aquatic. Tilapia, carp, trout, milkfish, bait minnow, yellow tail, mullet, cat fish.
Shrimps, prawns, oysters, mussels, pearl oyster for cultured pearls eg. Japanese pearl oyster, Pinctada fucata.
Water chestnut Trapa natans. During the last decade or so there has been noticeable a global upsurge for aquaculture. Some of the factors which have contributed to the upsurge are: Increased and continuously rising cost of fishing operations due to steep rise of the price of fuel.Web Japan provides information about Japan including facts, fun and new trends, traditional and pop culture, science and technology, food, travel, and life style.
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