Foreign policy and national defense

In regards to foreign policy, the founding fathers advocated a non-interventionist foreign policy. Hence, she must be engaged in frequent controversies, the causes of which are essentially foreign to our concerns.

Foreign policy and national defense

Military security In practice, national security is associated primarily with managing physical threats and with the military capabilities used for doing so. Most states, such as South Africa and Sweden, [14] [10] configure their military forces mainly for territorial defence; others, such as France, Russia, the UK and the US, [15] [16] [11] [12] invest in higher-cost expeditionary capabilitieswhich allow their armed forces to project power and sustain military operations abroad.

Economic security Economic security, in the context of international relationsis the ability of a nation state to maintain and develop the national economy, without which other dimensions of national security cannot be managed.

In larger countries, strategies for economic security expect to access resources and markets in other countries, and to protect their own markets at home. Developing countries may be less secure than economically advanced states due to high rates of unemployment and underpaid work. Environmental security Ecological security, also known as environmental security, refers to the integrity of ecosystems and the biosphereparticularly in relation to their capacity to sustain a diversity of life-forms including human life.

The security of ecosystems has attracted greater attention as the impact of ecological damage by humans has grown. The scope and nature of environmental threats to national security and strategies to engage them are a subject of debate.

These include global environmental problems such as climate change due to global warmingdeforestationand loss of biodiversity. These include resource scarcities leading to local conflict, such as disputes over water scarcity in the Middle East ; migration into the United States caused by the failure of agriculture in Mexico ; [1]: These include acts of war that degrade or destroy ecosystems.

Energy security Resources include water, sources of energy, land and minerals. Availability of adequate natural resources is important for a nation to develop its industry and economic power.

For example, in the Persian Gulf War ofIraq captured Kuwait partly in order to secure access to its oil wells, and one reason for the US counter-invasion was the value of the same wells to its own economy.

The interrelations between security, energy, natural resources, and their sustainability is increasingly acknowledged in national security strategies and resource security is now included among the UN Sustainable Development Goals. Computer security Computer securityalso known as cybersecurity or IT security, refers to the security of computing devices such as computers and smartphones, as well as computer networks such as private and public networks, and the Internet.

It concerns the protection of hardware, software, data, people, and also the procedures by which systems are accessed, and the field has growing importance due to the increasing reliance on computer systems in most societies. Infrastructure security seeks to limit vulnerability of these structures and systems to sabotageterrorismand contamination.

There are also commercial transportation security units such as the Amtrak Police in the United States. Critical infrastructure is vital for the essential functioning of a country.

Pan-Anarchism Against the State, Pan-Secessionism Against the Empire

Incidental or deliberate damage can have a serious impact on the economy and essential services. Some of the threats to infrastructure include: In the November Mumbai attacksthe Mumbai central station and hospital were deliberately targeted, for example. Cyberattacks on Estonia and cyberattacks during the South Ossetia war are examples.

Foreign policy and national defense

Issues in national security[ edit ] Consistency of approach[ edit ] The dimensions of national security outlined above are frequently in tension with one another. The high cost of maintaining large military forces places a burden on the economic security of a nation.

Unilateral security action by states can undermine political security at an international level if it erodes the rule of law and undermines the authority of international institutions. The invasion of Iraq in and the annexation of Crimea in have been cited as examples.

If tensions such as these are not managed effectively, national security policies and actions may be ineffective or counterproductive.

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National versus transnational security[ edit ] Increasingly, national security strategies have begun to recognise that nations cannot provide for their own security without also developing the security of their regional and international context.

Some argue that the principal beneficiary of national security policy should be the nation state itself, which should centre its strategy on protective and coercive capabilities in order to safeguard itself in a hostile environment and potentially to project that power into its environment, and dominate it to the point of strategic supremacy.

For example, the rights and liberties of citizens are affected by the use of military personnel and militarised police forces to control public behaviour; the use of surveillance including mass surveillance in cyberspace ; military recruitment and conscription practices; and the effects of warfare on civilians and civil infrastructure.

Foreign policy and national defense

This has led to a dialectical struggle, particularly in liberal democraciesbetween government authority and the rights and freedoms of the general public.

The National Security Agency harvests personal data across the internet. Even where the exercise of national security is subject to good governance and the rule of lawa risk remains that the term national security may be become a pretext for suppressing unfavorable political and social views.

In the US, for example, the controversial USA Patriot Act ofand the revelation by Edward Snowden in that the National Security Agency harvests the personal data of the general publicbrought these issues to wide public attention.Chapter Foreign Policy and National Defense.

Section 1: Foreign and Defense Policy: An Overview. From Isolationism to Internationalism. Isolationism. A purposeful refusal to become generally involved in the affairs of the rest of the world.

In US Foreign Policy and Defense Strategy, the authors analyze the strategic underpinnings of hegemony, assess the national security establishment that sustains dominance, consider the impact on civil-military relations, and explore the intertwining relationships between foreign policy, defense strategy, and commercial activities.

Eschewing. After eight years at Foreign Policy, here are the ten most popular Best Defense posts. National Security Advisor John Bolton’s choice for his deputy passes the loyalty litmus test for President Donald Trump, but it could signal yet more headwind for Defense Secretary James Mattis.

equivalent in the fi elds of foreign and defense policy. Here, however, the nature of the dilemma is a bit diff er-ent. On the one hand, long before the country emerged as policymakers must see foreign aff airs in terms of national economic self-interest.

Jeff ersonians, by contrast, regard the United States as an. Dec 18,  · Trump Sets National Security Strategy: An Outline For Military, Foreign Policy President Trump set out his national security strategy Monday, stressing strong defense, homeland protection and.

Government - Unit 5, Chapter Foreign Policy and National Defense by Zach White on Prezi