Poor Media Representation Once again, it seems as though the media coverage of the conflict was one-sided and ignored or partially covered many important aspects of the crisis. The propaganda and gross violations of basic rights by the Milosevic regime is well-documented and generally agreed with. However, the mainstream media were not very objective at the actual way in which NATO carried out their actions. Find out more about the media representation during the Kosovo crisis.
However, ensuring that peace ultimately will require the deployment of approximately 55, troops, bringing to more than 80, the number of NATO troops in the Balkans. As of Julyin the wake of the peace agreement, NATO was celebrating the fact that in Kosovo the alliance acted decisively.
In addition, despite disagreements about the wisdom of the bombings, once decisions were made the unanimous conclusion seems to be that alliance cohesion was maintained.
While the discussion of the future of the alliance after the Cold War has been part of ongoing NATO ministerial summits, the alliance seems to have made little progress in staking out a new role for itself in a changing security environment. If NATO is to survive and even thrive, it is incumbent upon the organization to review the lessons of the conflicts in the former Yugoslavia and to draw some conclusions about what they mean for the alliance's future.
I will argue here that in many ways the decision-making and divisions within the alliance surrounding what to do, first about Bosnia and then about the situation in Kosovo, are indicative of the problems that NATO has been facing since the end of the Cold War.
Lack of a clear mission and of leadership have contributed to drift, rather than direction, in spite of articulation of a "Strategic Concept. It also asserts that the pattern observed in Kosovo and before that in Bosnia, characterized by the threat of force but with little activity that would make that threat credible, is part of a pattern that was established as early as when, for political reasons, the leaders of the NATO nations chose not to use force until later in that conflict as well.
A Brief History of the Origins of the Conflicts in Yugoslavia It is important to put the situation in Kosovo, and NATO's hesitancy to address that conflict, into the context of the conflicts that have racked the country of Yugoslavia for almost a decade.
When Josef Tito died inthe end of the country of Yugoslavia became inevitable. The country had been artificially created in at the end of the First World War, and it joined a number of independent states, including Serbia and Montenegro, with parts of the old Habsburg and Ottoman empires.
Under Tito's leadership at the end of World War II, Yugoslavia was excluded from the Soviet eastern bloc and it became an important element in the West's policy of containment of the Soviet Union.
For the most part, careful political maneuvering by Tito ensured that Yugoslavia would survive amidst the uncertainty of the Cold War world. The country's openness to economic relations with the primary actors in the Cold War-world gave the country access to economic aid and capital goods and markets in a way that was not available to most of the countries of the Eastern bloc.
Tito's death, however, also illustrated many of the weaknesses of the system that he had created. The country of Yugoslavia was made up of six republics, each of which -- theoretically -- recognized nations as historical-territorial communities. What remained unclear was the relationship between the rights of the individual republics and the powers of the federal or central government of Yugoslavia.
While Tito was in power, the central government had precedence over the individual republics; with his death, however, the loose federal system was not strong enough to curtail the growing power of the republics.
A break-up of the country of Yugoslavia into independent nations made up of each of the republics was the inevitable result. In addition, changes in the international system conspired against the country of Yugoslavia.
During the s Yugoslavia was accumulating foreign debt which was exacerbated by world-wide economic recession. By the mids, the country was in economic depression which only grew worse as the Cold War ended and Yugoslavia no longer had the critical political or strategic role to play that it had during the Cold War.
Political uncertainty accompanied the economic instability, and the republics became more assertive in defining policies that would help them, often at the expense of what had been the country of Yugoslavia. Many argue that the demise of Yugoslavia, and the outbreak of conflict that inevitably followed, can be attributed to the rise of nationalist leaders who played upon the ethnic divisions, especially in Croatia, Serbia and Bosnia-Hercegovina.
It was in that same year that NATO drafted and was adopting its strategic concept for the alliance in the post-Cold War period; yet, the alliance was unprepared for the conflicts in Yugoslavia that would follow.
War in Croatia, Tensions were growing throughout that year, especially following the election of radical nationalist Franjo Tudjman to the presidency in April. In December, the constitution was changed so that Serb Croats were no longer recognized as Croatia's "constituent nation," but became instead the "national minority.
In Mayin violation of an existing agreement, two Croatian policemen entered the town of Borovo Selo, a Serb-held town in Croatia, and were arrested. Croatian authorities then sent 20 more policemen to free them, followed by reinforcements.
This led to a gun battle which left 17 dead. The incident can be seen as the start of the war in Croatia. Fighting followed for the next six months. From August through Novemberthe siege and shelling of the town of Vukovar by Serb forces, accompanied by the shelling of Dubrovnik in October both attracted significant publicity and attention and contributed to an international movement to support recognition of Croatia's independence.
Following the agreement, 14, UN peacekeepers were deployed to Croatia. For the most part, they were able to contain the further outbreak of violence in Croatia, although there were a number of notable, and deadly, lapses primarily over the status of the Krajina until a new ceasefire was negotiated in March However, the growing conflict situation in the neighboring republic of Bosnia-Hercegovina was far more complex than Croatia, and proved to be more difficult to resolve as well as directly threatening to NATO, which was unprepared for the conflict.
At this time, it was the United Nations, rather than NATO, that was seen as responsible for keeping the peace in the region despite the fact that NATO's Strategic Concept Paper suggested that the alliance had to be prepared for the risks posed by "ethnic rivalries and territorial disputes" in the future.
In fact, intermarriage was not uncommon and children grew up playing together. The conflict that followed Tito's death can be seen as rooted in a decade of economic decline and in the failure to sustain a central or federal government.
Rather than loyalty to the country of Yugoslavia, growing nationalist feelings led to ethnic loyalties instead. Fueled by nationalist leaders like Slobodan Milosevic, the movement toward Serbian nationalism directed those feelings against the Muslim members of the community and resulted in armed conflict as one group turned on another.Although bombing did not begin until March 24, , NATO's path to war in Kosovo wound its way through much of the region's troubled recent history.
NATO and humanitarian action in the Kosovo Crisis|UNHCR When NATO warplanes began to unleash their bombs in March against the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, even the most casual observer realized that the situation in Kosovo was not an ordinary crisis. left Kosovo reflected the main NATO demands.
It could easily be interpreted as increasingly clear that the recommendations, resolutions and roles of outside institutions – the European Union (EU), NATO, the Organisation for Security dictory principles were inescapably at the heart of this crisis, there was no.
Apr 03, · North Atlantic Treaty Organization - NATO's Role in Relation to the Conflict in Kosovo Britannica Websites Articles from Britannica Encyclopedias for elementary and high school students.
The Kosovo War was an armed conflict in Kosovo that started in late February and lasted until 11 June It was fought by the forces of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (by this time, consisting of the Republics of Montenegro and Serbia), which controlled Kosovo before the war, and the Kosovo Albanian rebel group known as the Kosovo Liberation Army (KLA), with air support from the.
Find out more about the effects of NATO bombing during the Kosovo crisis. Environmental Concerns. Illegal depleted Uranium was used, just as it was in the Gulf War in Many civilian facilities were bombed by NATO while claiming that this was acceptable because these facilities were used by the military.