This system was to differ from adult or criminal court in a number of ways. It was to focus on the child or adolescent as a person in need of assistance, not on the act that brought him or her before the court. The proceedings were informal, with much discretion left to the juvenile court judge.
Thus, the juvenile justice system, the judiciary, and the criminal justice system all have roles to play in responding to these crimes.
Although juvenile court judges have considerable discretion and authority over the outcome of juvenile cases, the preferences and actions of police, attorneys, court staff, and probation staff all can influence whether and how youth proceed through the system.
The discretion and preferences of each of these actors are often driven by their role or their function within the legal system.
For example, judges and probation staff may be considering the rehabilitation role of the system, whereas police and prosecutors may be aligned around public safety responsibilities. In addition, decisions by each of these actors are influenced not just by the nature of an offense committed by a juvenile, but also by the youth's personal characteristics [ 9 ].
When youth are prostituted, the juvenile justice system typically approaches them in one of three ways, depending on state law: As of this writing, one state, Illinois, had adopted the first approach.
Most other states had adopted the third approach, treating commercially sexually exploited and trafficked youth as delinquents so they enter the traditional juvenile justice system.
Some of these states and localities within them have diversion programs so that, as in states adopting the second approach, youth identified as victims of trafficking can receive treatment as part of their rehabilitation or in lieu of punishment, but must cooperate with these services or the juvenile delinquency case will proceed or be reopened.
Finally, the juvenile justice system has opportunities to identify victims of trafficking who are in the system on charges unrelated to prostitution through intake screenings, runaway and homeless programs, and programming in juvenile detention centers [ 39424344 ]. See Box 8 for an example of a juvenile justice response to sex trafficking.
Los Angeles County Probation Department: Inthe Los Angeles County Probation Department received grant funding from the State of California to enhance the services provided to domestic more Although many states continue to criminalize juvenile prostitution, judges have considerable discretion over how they approach these cases.
Boxes 9 - 11 describe three examples of courts that treat youth charged with prostitution as crime victims in need of services.Often these individuals are directly responsible for many appointments within the criminal justice system.
Mayors appoint chiefs of police in many towns and cities. Governors appoint law enforcement heads as well as correctional leadership. Roles in the Criminal Justice System Role of Law Enforcement: To be an impartial investigator and protector of public safety.
Police officers or sheriff's deputies are typically first to respond to a crime scene and first to have contact with victims and witnesses. And, because the system has as a goal rehabilitation, many more agencies have a role to play in California's juvenile justice system than in the adult system, including schools, social services agencies, and community-based orga nizations.
A separate juvenile justice system was established in the United States about years ago with the goal of diverting youthful offenders from the destructive punishments of criminal courts and encouraging rehabilitation based on the individual juvenile's needs.