Early history[ edit ] Old Russian literature consists of several masterpieces written in the Old Russian language i. The main type of Old Russian historical literature were chroniclesmost of them anonymous. Life of Alexander Nevsky offers a well-known example.
An unusually monumental animal painting that challenges the hierarchy of genres. A distinctive feature of the period, compared to earlier European painting, was the limited number of religious paintings.
Dutch Calvinism forbade religious paintings in churches, and though biblical subjects were acceptable in private homes, relatively few were produced. The other traditional classes of history and portrait painting were present, but the period is more notable for a huge variety of other genres, sub-divided into numerous specialized categories, such as scenes of peasant life, landscapes, townscapes, landscapes with animals, maritime paintings, flower paintings and still lifes of various types.
The development of many of these types of painting was decisively influenced by 17th-century Dutch artists.
The widely held theory of the " hierarchy of genres " in painting, whereby some types were regarded as more prestigious than others, led many painters to want to produce history painting. However this was the hardest to sell, as even Rembrandt found. Many were forced to produce portraits or genre scenes, which sold much more easily.
In descending order of status, the categories in the hierarchy were: Portrait paintingincluding the tronie genre painting or scenes of everyday life landscapeincluding seascapes, battlescenes, cityscapes, and ruins landscapists were the "common footmen in the Army of Art" according to Samuel van Hoogstraten.
Painting directly onto walls hardly existed; when a wall-space in a public building needed decorating, fitted framed canvas was normally used. For the extra precision possible on a hard surface, many painters continued to use wooden panels, some time after the rest of Western Europe had abandoned them; some used copper plates, usually recycling plates from printmaking.
In turn, the number of surviving Golden Age paintings was reduced by them being overpainted with new works by artists throughout the 18th and 19th century — poor ones were usually cheaper than a new canvas, stretcher and frame. There was very little Dutch sculpture during the period; it is mostly found in tomb monuments and attached to public buildings, and small sculptures for houses are a noticeable gap, their place taken by silverware and ceramics.
Painted delftware tiles were very cheap and common, if rarely of really high quality, but silver, especially in the auricular styleled Europe.
With this exception, the best artistic efforts were concentrated on painting and printmaking. Note the paintings on the wall of what appears to be a tavern; also here. Foreigners remarked on the enormous quantities of art produced and the large fairs where many paintings were sold — it has been roughly estimated that over 1.
Such is the generall Notion, enclination and delight that these Countrie Native have to Painting" reported an English traveller in Rembrandt's dealer Hendrick van Uylenburgh and his son Gerrit were among the most important.
Landscapes were the easiest uncommissioned works to sell, and their painters were the "common footmen in the Army of Art" according to Samuel van Hoogstraten. Typically workshops were smaller than in Flanders or Italy, with only one or two apprentices at a time, the number often being restricted by guild regulations.
The turmoil of the early years of the Republic, with displaced artists from the South moving north and the loss of traditional markets in the court and church, led to a resurgence of artists guilds, often still called the Guild of Saint Luke.
In many cases these involved the artists extricating themselves from medieval groupings where they shared a guild with several other trades, such as housepainting.
Several new guilds were established in the period: The Haguewith the court, was an early example, where artists split into two groups in with the founding of the Confrerie Pictura. With the obvious exception of portraits, many more Dutch paintings were done "speculatively" without a specific commission than was then the case in other countries — one of many ways in which the Dutch art market showed the future.
Many artists came from well-off families, who paid fees for their apprenticeships, and they often married into property.
Rembrandt and Jan Steen were both enrolled at the University of Leiden for a while. Several cities had distinct styles and specialities by subject, but Amsterdam was the largest artistic centre, because of its great wealth.
But Dutch art was a source of national pride, and the major biographers are crucial sources of information. These are Karel van Mander Het Schilderboeck,who essentially covers the previous century, and Arnold Houbraken De groote schouburgh der Nederlantsche konstschilders en schilderessen — "The Great Theatre of Dutch Painters", — Both followed, and indeed exceeded, Vasari in including a great number of short lives of artists — over in Houbraken's case — and both are considered generally accurate on factual matters.
The German artist Joachim von Sandrart — had worked for periods in Holland, and his Deutsche Akademie in the same format covers many Dutch artists he knew. Houbraken's master, and Rembrandt's pupil, was Samuel van Hoogstraten —whose Zichtbare wereld and Inleyding tot de Hooge Schoole der Schilderkonst contain more critical than biographical information, and are among the most important treatises on painting of the period.The second half of the 19th Century - Sample Essay The establishment of a national form of education came at the end of the 19th century and is still regarded as a new system being less than years old.
Dutch Golden Age painting is the painting of the Dutch Golden Age, a period in Dutch history roughly spanning the 17th century, during and after the later part of the Eighty Years' War (–) for Dutch independence..
The new Dutch Republic was the most prosperous nation in Europe and led European trade, science, and art. The northern Netherlandish provinces that made up the new state. - Comparing Pre 20th Century and 20th Century Short Stories In this essay, I will compare pieces of 20th century and pre 20th century literature.
The two short stories I will compare are 'The Whole Town's Sleeping' by Ray Bradbury written in and 'A Terribly Strange Bed' written in by Wilkie Collins.
European History of the second half of the 19th century is European History that belongs between and European History from the second half of the 19th century is European History starting from (and moving all the way up until the present day).
This webpage is for Dr. Wheeler's literature students, and it offers introductory survey information concerning the literature of classical China, classical Rome, classical Greece, the Bible as Literature, medieval literature, Renaissance literature, and genre studies.
Science was dominant in the second half of the 19th century because of a multitude of reasons. Primarily, the western European world in particular had become largely secular, and so religion no longer had as much prevalence as proving explanations for human sociology and origin.